The versatile Knorr pyrrole synthesis is an important route to pyrroles it involves the condensation of a β-keto ester with an α-amino ketone An important pyrrole synthesis, known as the Knorr synthesis, is of the cyclizative condensation type. An α-amino ketone furnishes a nucleophilic nitrogen and. Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Schematic representation of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole.

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Site Search any all words. Modern practice is to add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid. Annalen der Chemie in German.

Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft in German. The Knorr pyrrole synthesis is a widely used chemical reaction that synthesizes substituted pyrroles 3.

La Gazzetta Chimica Italiana in Italian. Even thioesters have been successfully prepared, using the method.

Aromatic Heterocyclic Formation – Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

The reaction can be conducted under neutral or weakly acidic conditions. The 5-methyl group can be variously oxidized to chloromethyl, aldehyde, or carboxylic acid functionality by the use of stoichiometric sulfuryl chloride in glacial acetic acid. The usual way of doing this is from the relevant oximevia the Neber rearrangement.

It synthess proceed at room temperature.

In Elderfield, Robert Cooley. This reduction consumes two equivalents of zinc and four equivalents of acetic acid.

Saidi, Synlett, The original Knorr synthesis employed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetateone of which was converted to ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate by dissolving it in glacial acetic acidand slowly adding one equivalent of saturated aqueous sodium nitriteunder external cooling. An important product of the Fischer-Fink synthesis was ethyl 4,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate, made from ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate and 2-methyloxobutanal, in turn made by the Claisen condensation of 2-butanone with ethyl formate.


The nitro group has in every situation had a positive effect on the reaction rate. Scheeren, Tetrahedron, 60 Benzyl groups can be removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium on carbonand tertiary-butyl groups can be removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acidor boiling aqueous acetic acid. Journal of the Chemical Society Resumed: The substituents also influence the basicity of the imine, with the nitro group leading to a more basic nucleophile.

The Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis is the condensation of a 1,4-dicarbonyl compound with an excess of a primary amine or ammonia to give a pyrrole. Levi and Zanetti extended the Knorr synthesis in to the use of acetylacetone 2,4-pentanedione in reaction with ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Meanwhile, Johnson had extended the Fischer-Fink synthesis by reacting 2-oximinoacetoacetate esters ethyl, benzyl, or tertiary-butyl syynthesis, with 3-alkyl substituted 2,4-pentanediones. The imine then tautomerizes to an enamine, followed by cyclization, elimination of pyrrloe, and isomerization to the pyrrole. This page was last edited on 17 Februaryat A mechanism that accounts for the influence of different substitution patterns mesodl and explains the influence of a p -nitrophenyl group making a nucleophile more reactive although not as the imine includes the cyclization of a hemiacetal which is followed by different dehydration steps:.

Both of these products resulted from the loss of the acetyl group from the inferred ethyl 2-aminoacetoacetate intermediate. Hans Fischer and Emmy Fink found that Zanetti’s synthesis from 2,4-pentanedione and ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate gave ethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate as a trace byproduct.

The use of ammonia should give an uncharged intermediate and is therefore less affected by the choice of substitutents.

Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

The methoxy group has a negative effect on the cyclization rate in each case. Canadian Journal of Chemistry. Zinc dust was then stirred in, reducing the oxime group to the amine. The mechanism requires zinc and acetic acid as catalysts. A more detailed description can be found in the work by Venkataraman Amarnath, and references cited therein J. Any mechanism such as the following one that involves the formation of an enamine before the rate-determining step – the cyclization – must be ruled out.


Journal of the American Chemical Society. The resulting product, diethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate, has been called Knorr’s Pyrrole ever since. One equivalent of sodium hydroxide will saponify the 2-ester selectively.

Similarly, 3-ketobutyraldehyde diethyl acetal led to the formation of ethyl 5-methylpyrrolecarboxylate.

Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

Microwave mediated facile one-pot synthesis of polyarylpyrroles from butene- and butyne-1,4-diones H. George Kleinspehn reported that the Fischer—Fink connectivity could be forced to occur exclusively, by the use of diethyl oximinomalonate in the synthesis, with 2,4-pentanedione, or its 3-alkyl substituted derivatives.

Preparation of Pyrroles Knorrr. Ring forming reactions Nitrogen heterocycle forming reactions Heterocycle forming pyerole Carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions Name reactions. There are a number of important syntheses of pyrroles that are operated in the manner of the Knorr Synthesis, despite having mechanisms of very different connectivity between the starting materials and the pyrrolic product. Dissolving Knorr’s pyrrole in concentrated sulfuric acidand then pouring the resulting solution into water will hydrolyze the 4-ester group selectively.